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The group in which an element is located relates to the number of valence electrons in its outer shell because elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons. Valence electrons are the outermost electrons that are involved in chemical reactions. The number of valence electrons is equal to the main group number of the element, which can be found from its column on the periodic table. The number of valence electrons increases from left to right within a row .
The periodic table is divided into groups (columns) and periods (rows). Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties because they have the same number of electrons in their outer shell . For example, all elements in Group 1 have one valence electron, while all elements in Group 2 have two valence electrons .
The number of valence electrons determines how an atom will react with other atoms. Atoms with one or two valence electrons tend to lose them to form positively charged ions. Atoms with five, six or seven valence electrons tend to gain electrons to form negatively charged ions .
The relationship between the group and the number of valence electrons can be seen by looking at the periodic table. For example, all elements in Group 1 (alkali metals) have one valence electron. All elements in Group 2 (alkaline earth metals) have two valence electrons. All elements in Group 13 have three valence electrons. All elements in Group 14 have four valence electrons. All elements in Group 15 have five valence electrons. All elements in Group 16 have six valence electrons. All elements in Group 17 (halogens) have seven valence electrons. All elements in Group 18 (noble gases) have eight valence electrons except for helium which has two .
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